Basic Process Measurements - E-bok - Smith Cecil L Smith () | Bokus
This measurement would then help the project team to focus on improvement of the process. Though the criteria for measurement could be several and exhaustive, it would be advisable to limit the criteria to few basic process measurements namely effectiveness, efficiency and adaptability. At this point it is important to understand and appreciate the need for process measurement. Measurement of the process As It Is becomes the starting point to work out the process improvement and goals. Mapping existing level of the process gives us the reference point or the base to work towards further improvement.
Once the current processes performance has been ascertained and mapped, the process can then be managed, controlled and improved using the BPI techniques. View All Articles. To Know more, click on About Us.
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Electronics for Service Engineers. Dave Fox. Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering. Massimo Ceraolo. Electric Power Systems. Various systems of axioms , or basic rules and assumptions, have been formulated as a basis for measurement theory.
Some of the most important types of axioms include axioms of order, axioms of extension, axioms of difference, axioms of conjointness, and axioms of geometry. Axioms of order ensure that the order imposed on objects by the assignment of numbers is the same order attained in actual observation or measurement.
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Axioms of extension deal with the representation of such attributes as time duration, length, and mass, which can be combined, or concatenated, for multiple objects exhibiting the attribute in question. Axioms of difference govern the measuring of intervals. Axioms of conjointness postulate that attributes that cannot be measured empirically for example, loudness, intelligence, or hunger can be measured by observing the way their component dimensions change in relation to each other.
Axioms of geometry govern the representation of dimensionally complex attributes by pairs of numbers, triples of numbers, or even n -tuples of numbers.
The problem of error is one of the central concerns of measurement theory. At one time it was believed that errors of measurement could eventually be eliminated through the refinement of scientific principles and equipment. This belief is no longer held by most scientists, and almost all physical measurements reported today are accompanied by some indication of the limitation of accuracy or the probable degree of error.
Among the various types of error that must be taken into account are errors of observation which include instrumental errors, personal errors, systematic errors, and random errors , errors of sampling, and direct and indirect errors in which one erroneous measurement is used in computing other measurements.
The first systematic work on observational error was produced by the English mathematician Thomas Simpson in , but the fundamental work on error theory was done by two 18th-century French astronomers, Joseph-Louis Lagrange and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first attempt to incorporate measurement theory into the social sciences also occurred in the 18th century, when Jeremy Bentham , a British utilitarian moralist, attempted to create a theory for the measurement of value. Since most social theories are speculative in nature, attempts to establish standard measuring sequences or techniques for them have met with limited success.
Some of the problems involved in social measurement include the lack of universally accepted theoretical frameworks and thus of quantifiable measures, sampling errors, problems associated with the intrusion of the measurer on the object being measured, and the subjective nature of the information received from human subjects. Economics is probably the social science that has had the most success in adopting measurement theories, primarily because many economic variables like price and quantity can be measured easily and objectively.
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