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McGrath, Bristol P. From whence he was honourably conveyed in funerall pomp to Westminster Abby Church on Thursday the 22 of October following. Published by authority Mayo, Dorchester C. Mayo, ed. McGrath, Bristol Record Society, vol. Wolfe, 8 vols. Nagel, 'The militia of London, ', London Ph. Nash, Collections for the History of Worceste r shire , 2 vols. Peachey and A. Peacock, ed. Pennington and I. Roots, Staffs.
Wednesday 20 February /67 (The Diary of Samuel Pepys)
John Rushworth 8 vols. Hutchinson' P. Shaw, The History and Antiquities of Staffordshire , 2 vols. The regiments of the Eastern Association , 2 vols. Gentry' 'The Gentry of Staffordshire, ', ed. Howell, 34 vols. Strype, Survey of the C ities of London and Westminster , 2 vols. Sutton, 'Cromwell's commissioners for preserving the peace of the commonwealth: a Staffordshire case study', in I. Gentles, J. Morrill, B. Worden eds. Thomas-Stanford, Sussex in the Great Civil War and the Interregnum, London, Thrale The names, dignities and places of all the collonells, lieutenant- collonels, serjant majors, captaines, quarter-masters, lieutenants and ensignes of the city of London vvith the captaines names according to their seniority and places.
The Major Generall is the right worshipll. Philip Skippon Esquire, Serjant Major Generall of all the forces of London: one of the committee for the militia and captain of that ancient and worthy society exercising armes in the artillery garden of the same city , London: Printed for Richard Thrale, Thurloe state papers State Papers of John Thurloe ed.
Tucker, Denbighshire Officers in the Civil War n. Tucker, Civil War N.
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The Visitations of Bedfordshire , ed. Blaydes, Harleian Soc. Rylands, Harleian Soc. Cheshire, Cheshire Visitation Pedigrees, , ed. Adams, Harleian Society, vol. Cornwall J. Devon J. Dorset, The Visitation of the C ounty of Dorset… , ed. Rylands, Harleian Society, vol. Dorset, The Visitation of Dorset, , ed.
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Squibb, Harleian Society, vol. Glo s. Maclean and W. Heane, Harleian. Fitz-Roy Fenwick and Walter C. Metcalfe Vis. Kent, The Visitation of Kent, taken in the years , ed. Hovenden, Harleian Soc. Armytage, Harleian Soc.
Raines, Chetham Soc. London, The V isitation of London: anno Domini , , and Made by Sr. Henry St. George, kt. Richard St. Jackson and J. Chester, Harleian Soc, 15, 17 Vis. London, London V isitation P edigrees, , ed. Whitmore and A. Hughes Clarke, Harleian Soc, 92 Vis. London, The V isitation of London begun in , ed. Wales, C. Hartley, Harleian.
Parts of the stone are heavily eroded indicating that it was exposed to the weather for a long time before being embedded in the wall of the church. The stone was examined by a former Inspector of Ancient Monuments and he made his report in He suggested that the design of the crosses could date from the beginning of Christianity in Sussex and that the stone was first used as a gable cross on the church founded by the charter of The stone was later incised on the other side and reused, probably in the late Saxon period when the church had been damaged in the Danish wars We have already concluded that all the evidence points to the first church being built of wood, so the stone cross must have come from a later stone building.
There is evidence suggesting that the Wittering minster may have come under the control of the local bishop by 38 and it is just possible that this transfer provided the context in which a new, stone church was built on this site.
By the community would probably have been going for over thirty years and it would have been clear that the foundation would endure beyond the lifetimes of its founders and members. If a stone church had been built at this time, we could make a guess that our Saxon cross came from this church However, this is only a guess and the fact remains that new timber churches were still being built in different parts of southern England in the tenth and even eleventh centuries.
The shift to widespread stone building was driven by economic growth as well as by the wider availability of craftsmen skilled in stone building So we do not currently have sufficient evidence to be certain when the first stone church was built at West Wittering 41 and therefore we cannot be certain of the origins of our stone cross. But we can, perhaps, be sure that the craftsmen who incised the crosses on the stone put their best work into it and although it became lost for a time, buried in the walls of the present church, it was rescued and is now valued as part of our Christian heritage.
There are many other examples of Christian heritage left to us by the Anglo-Saxons.
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For a video visit to this sacred site, click on the link at reference For an example of Anglo-Saxon religious poetry you may like to read the poignant Dream of the Rood which was probably written in the eighth century The Benedictional of St Aethelwold is a book of blessings made for his use while he was bishop of Winchester from to See links at 45 and 46 to view the gorgeous artwork on the British Library website. Monasteries were accessible and undefended sources of treasures and manpower, which is probably why they were attractive targets for Viking raiders The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles provide us with insight into these raids.
One can only imagine the terror of the people of Wittering as they looked across the water to the Isle of Wight, knowing that Viking warships were anchored there preparing for the next wave of raids. By the Vikings had overrun great swathes of England including all the South Saxons. An attempt was made to pay off the raiders, promising tax and provisions in return for peace and cessation of the raids.
These accounts suggest that the Vikings came raiding in the vicinity of Wittering and it seems almost inconceivable that the church escaped plunder and burning. The above records are also interesting for a completely different reason: they give us an insight into some of the Christian festivals celebrated at that time.
In all the English accepted Cnut as king. He reigned until and during that time there was much needed peace in the land It is thought that our plain, tub-shaped baptismal font dates from this time This view would not be shared by a nineteenth-century author with a wonderfully robust and colourful style of writing:.
For it is manifest that the date of the church in which it may be placed is the most unsafe and unconvincing evidence that can be followed in deciding that of the Font. The sanctity rightly and reasonably attached to the consecrated instrument of a Holy Sacrament caused the careful preservation of Fonts unchanged by centuries of re-building and alteration.
We also have some convincing geological evidence about a group of early Sussex fonts, which includes the West Wittering font and supports its Saxon origins:. Freshwater limestone was widely used in south-western Sussex in pre-Conquest times and it may have come from a source closer to home. Following the Conquest in , the Normans enlarged and improved existing parish churches and built new ones as required However, even before the Conquest, church rebuilding was taking place.
These mid-eleventh to early twelfth-century buildings reflect an ethic of clearing away and starting again. A new build provided the opportunity of securing a more accurate east to west alignment. The walls of Norman churches were generally thicker than those built in Anglo-Saxon times and were usually constructed of small stones with a rubble core The walls of West Wittering church were built of rubble, part flint, part beach boulders and also ashlar Ashlar comprises stone blocks set in horizontal courses, each course being the same height, though successive courses may be of different heights If you stand on the outside of the nave, between the tower and the porch, you can see several areas where the flints are arranged in a herringbone pattern.
The nave is twelfth century, probably the first half of that century.
Related Sussex in the great Civil War and the interregnum, 1642-1660 (1910)
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